19 02 2007

The gravitational waves may provide a wealth of information about the Kingdom of God.

Our eyes use visible light to see things. At night, when there is no visible light, soldiers may use infrared to see enemy’s activities. In hospitals, x-ray is commonly used to see possible symptoms inside our body. The visible light, infrared and x-ray are electromagnetic waves with different wavelengths. As explained in a previously, electromagnetic waves (photons) are confined in our braneworld, which is a three-dimensional sub-universe embedded in a ten-dimensional bulk universe. If God is some intelligent life who lives outside our braneworld, it is impossible for us to see Him by electromagnetic waves. Furthermore, the matter that constitutes the Kingdom of God does not interact with photons. Therefore, even if God enters into our braneworld, He still cannot be detected by electromagnetic waves.

The only possible way to see the Kingdom of God is by gravitational waves (gravitons), which also travel at the speed of light. Among all elementary particles that are known to us, only the graviton may leave our braneworld and enter the bulk universe. Moreover, the matter in the Kingdom of God is very likely to interact with gravitons. Therefore, it is possible to use gravitational waves to obtain information about the Kingdom of God. However, the gravitational waves are extremely weak compared to electromagnetic waves. This is because the gravitational waves are related to the gravitational force and the electromagnetic waves are related to the electromagnetic force. For the interaction between two electrons (which have both charge and mass), the electromagnetic force is 1043 times stronger than the gravitational force.

The gravitational waves are emitted when the motion of a mass is accelerating (including vibration and rotation), similar to the emission of electromagnetic waves from accelerating charges. Hence, it is very easy to generate a gravitational wave – just shake your head. However, to generate a detectable gravitational wave is a very challenging task. Although the gravitational wave was predicted by Einstein’s general relativity in early 20th century, it has not been directly detected yet. The strongest gravitational wave may come from the rotation of stars. Currently, there are several gravitational wave observatories (e.g., LIGO and GEO 600) designed to detect gravitational waves from the space.

Physicists have found the reason why the gravitational force is extremely weak: because the force may “leak” to the extra dimensions that are invisible to us. For the observer (e.g., God) in the bulk universe, the gravitational force should be many orders of magnitude stronger. Thus, in the Kingdom of God, the gravitational waves could be the major messenger for communication and for obtaining information, just like the electromagnetic waves in our world. Since all our matter particles can interact with gravitons, God is very likely to use gravitational waves to “see” our world. He may also use gravitons to influence our world, ranging from stellar motion, to biological evolution, and to our brain function. The existence of God will be confirmed if the gravitational waves from God are detected.

The most direct proof of God’s existence is to “see” God directly by gravitational waves. The classical method of vibration or rotation of a mass in our laboratory is unlikely to generate detectable gravitational waves. Recently, it has been suggested that the gravitational waves could be generated by quantum methods, similar to a laser that generates photon beams. The gravitational laser is called gaser .

After a powerful gaser is developed, it is quite possible to see God when He is in our braneworld. However, to see anything outside our braneworld will face another difficulty: which direction should the gaser point to? All directions that we can see with our eyes are in the braneworld, but God may be in the direction that is invisible to us. We do not have the answer at this time. However, since the gravitational waves may spread to the extra dimensions that cannot be seen by electromagnetic waves, the graviton beams may reveal the extra dimensions no matter which direction they are pointed to. After we gain more experience, we will be able to know how to probe the extra dimensions by gravitational waves. In the not-too-distant future, the gravitational waves may provide a wealth of information about the Kingdom of God.

Why can’t we see God?-A scientific explanation

19 10 2006

The string theory just offered a completely new concept about our universe. After I read an article on string theory, I was thrilled. This must be it! God must be there! He could be only a centimeter away from us without being detected. Physicists have discovered the mechanism that prevents us from seeing the Kingdom of God!The string theory has been developed for several decades, with a goal to become “the theory of everything”, that is, to unify all four fundamental forces – gravity, electromagnetism, strong and weak nuclear forces. A revolutionary discovery of the theory is that the whole universe should have nine or ten dimensions of space, instead of three dimensions (length, width and height). Then, why do we see only three dimensions? In the earlier version of the string theory, it was assumed that those extra dimensions were too small to be observed. Thus, the whole universe is essentially the same as the 3D world. If this were true, there would be no place for God. Fortunately, a few years before 2000, researchers began to realize that those extra dimensions could be as large as the ordinary three dimensions. The reason why we cannot see extra dimensions is because all matter and electromagnetic waves (photons) are confined in a three dimensional sub-universe called “braneworld“.

At present, the major messenger we use to see or detect things is the electromagnetic waves which include radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, and x-ray. Since the electromagnetic waves are confined in our braneworld, this immediately explains why we cannot detect God if He lives outside our braneworld. The relationship between our braneworld (three dimensional) and the whole universe (ten dimensional) is like a TV screen (two dimensional) in our house (three dimensional). Suppose there is a creature confined on the TV screen, he cannot see us even if we are only a centimeter away from him. Similarly, if God lives in the ten dimensional space but outside our braneworld, we cannot see Him even if He is only a centimeter away from us.

What is the mechanism that confines matter and photons in our braneworld?

We know that all matter in our world is composed of atoms. An atom consists of a nucleus surrounded by electrons. A nucleus contains protons and neutrons, which are made up of quarks. The electron and quarks are elementary particles which cannot be divided further. In addition to the elementary particles that constitute matter, there is another type of elementary particles that mediate the fundamental force between matter particles. For example, the electromagnetic force is mediated by photon, the gravity is mediated by graviton. You may have learned that the magnetic force is mediated by the magnetic field. Similarly, you can say that the electromagnetic force is mediated by the electromagnetic field. In quantum physics, a “field” can also be viewed (“quantized”) as a particle. The photon is the particle name of the electromagnetic field. The graviton is the particle name of the gravitational field. A field may also be static (like a magnetic field) or dynamic (such as the electromagnetic waves).

According to the string theory, an elementary particle can be considered as a “string” with extremely short length. All properties (mass, energy, etc.) of an elementary particle are inherent in the string’s vibrational patterns. The particle string is analogous to a violin string whose vibrations produce various music notes. Similarly, different vibrational patterns of a particle string give rise to different properties. The vibrational patterns depend on the endpoints of the string. The particle string can be either “open” (with two endpoints, like a violin string) or “closed” (no endpoints, like a ring). In contrast to a violin string whose endpoints are fixed on a wooden board, the endpoints of a particle string are fixed in a “brane” (as in membrane), which is a space with two, three, or more dimensions. Since its endpoints are fixed, the open-string particle cannot escape from the brane. However, the closed-string particle can go anywhere because it has no endpoints to be fixed. Mathematically, different endpoints have different boundary conditions that are used in solving the equations for the vibrational patterns.

The properties of elementary particles in our world are known from experiments. The vibrational patterns of a particle string can be obtained by solving the fundamental equation in the string theory with appropriate boundary conditions (corresponding to endpoints). It has been found that, in order to match particle properties with vibrational patterns, the graviton must be a closed string, while all other particles must be an open string with endpoints fixed in a three-dimensional brane. This predicts that all matter and photons must be trapped in a three-dimensional braneworld. The only thing that can escape from the braneworld is the graviton.

What about the Kingdom of God in the higher dimensional space (the “bulk universe”)? Their matter is likely to be made of the elementary particles with closed string, thereby free to go anywhere. Their particles must not have any charge that interacts with photons, because the photon is an open-string particle which is unique to our braneworld. The electromagnetic waves (photons) will pass through their matter without being reflected at all. Therefore, even if their matter (including life) enters into our braneworld, it still cannot be detected by electromagnetic waves.

All our matter particles can interact with the graviton, which is a closed string. It is very likely that the matter in the Kingdom of God can also interact with the graviton. Hence, in principle, God could be detected by gravitational waves (gravitons). However, the gravitational waves are extremely weak. Physicists have not been able to generate detectable gravitational waves yet. In the future, when we have better scientific knowledge and technology, we may be able to prove the existence of God by using gravitational waves to detect Him directly.

Where did the order come from?

4 10 2006


The evolution is a process from a simple system to a more complex system with higher ordered structures. Where did the order come from? Does the second law of thermodynamics prevent the creation of order?The second law of thermodynamics states that the entropy of a closed (isolated) system can never decrease. The entropy is a parameter for disorder. More order means less entropy. However, it must be noted that the second law applies to a “closed” system. Although the entropy of a closed system never decreases, the entropy of a local system within the closed system may decrease, as long as the total entropy of the closed system does not decrease. Therefore, ordered structures can be created in a local system. For instance, water molecules may combine to form more ordered liquid water. If the second law prevents the formation of ordered structures, we would never have rain.

Ilya Prigogine was the first to elucidate the creation of order from a non-equilibrium system. In 1977, he was awarded a Nobel Prize for his contribution in this area. According to his works, order is most likely created from a closed system which is far from equilibrium. The reason is quite simple. When a closed system is in the equilibrium state, its entropy has reached a maximum value. The entropy of the closed system cannot increase further. Hence, there is no room to compensate for the entropy decrease of a local system within the closed system unless it is accompanied by an entropy increase in a neighboring local system. By contrast, if a closed system is far from equilibrium, its entropy will increase dramatically, which can compensate for a substantial entropy decrease of a local system. Thus, ordered structures are more likely to be created from a non-equilibrium state than an equilibrium state.

In the previous article: I assumed that the spirit world began with an empty space which appears to be an equilibrium state. However, because of quantum fluctuation, it is actually not an equilibrium state. As mentioned in the previous article, the quantum fluctuation may create some kind of particles from the vacuum. The particle’s energy created from the vacuum is called the vacuum energy, which is the physical basis of the cosmological constant in Einstein’s cosmological equations. The vacuum energy will produce a negative pressure which shifts the system further from an equilibrium state. Although the attractive gravitational force among particles tends to contract the space, the negative pressure has an anti-gravity effect to push the space to expand. More space will create more vacuum energy and the whole universe may deviate further and further from the equilibrium state. The creation of the far-from-equilibrium state allows ordered structures to be formed.The above model for the origin of the spirit world is quite similar to the currently popular inflation model for the origin of our braneworld. In the inflation model, the negative pressure plays a critical role for the spectacular Big Bang. The vacuum energy density was assumed to be very large, thereby exerting an enormous negative pressure. Thus, our braneworld began with a state which is extremely far from equilibrium. In order to reach an equilibrium state, our braneworld expanded rapidly, resulting in dramatic increase in entropy. This can more than compensate for the entropy decrease due to the formation of ordered structures such as galaxies, stars, planets and the life on Earth.

In contrast to the gigantic Big Bang, the spirit world might begin with a whisper. Nothing spectacular had happened. No extremely large vacuum energy density was created, because quantum fluctuation can most likely create small vacuum energy density. As a result, the space expansion of the bulk universe should be a fairly slow process. The far-from-equilibrium state was gradually built up, due to accumulation of negative pressure as the space expanded. Therefore, the anti-gravity force of the negative pressure could be the ultimate source of all order.

Is the Big Bang a natural event or God’s works? In the next article, I shall show that the recently discovered “dark energy” may provide further information about the origin of our braneworld.

The string theory and miracles

4 10 2006

According to the string theory, the whole universe (called the “bulk universe“) has 11 dimensions – 10 dimensions of space and one dimension of time. The reason why we experience only three dimensions of space is because we are confined in a sub-universe called the “braneworld“. In physics, a dimension can be considered as a “degree of freedom”. Living in a world with more dimensions should have more degrees of freedom, and thus more powerful. This can be illustrated by the following figure.

Suppose there is a creature confined on this web page (a two dimensional world), then he cannot enter the red square from outside without crossing the red lines. However, for us living in the three dimensional world, we can reach inside of the square from the direction perpendicular to the web page. Similarly, for a creature living in the higher dimensional world than our 3D world, he can enter into our house without the need to open the door. He can even reach our internal organs without cutting the skin. This is hard to visualize with our brain, but it can be shown from the geometry developed by Bernhard Riemann in 1854.

Our braneworld is embedded in the higher dimensional bulk universe, similar to a computer screen in our house. If God is some intelligent life living in the bulk universe, He should be far more powerful than us, because He has more degrees of freedom. He can access our internal organs from other directions that are invisible to us. Therefore, He has the power to remove lung tumors without cutting the skin. He could influence our decision making by altering the neurotransmitter release at the junction (synapse) between neurons.

Although God could perform all kinds of miracles, it seems that He does not intend to do things that obviously break the physical laws of our braneworld. We never saw a chair fly by itself or a sofa suddenly disappear. If this happens, our scientific foundation would be in trouble. Then, what kind of miracles would God do?

Our physical laws do not fix all future courses. Many phenomena are probabilistic, rather than deterministic. For example, meteorologists can predict weather only with certain probability. The genes of a child cannot be completely determined from the genes of his or her parents. “To be or not to be” is determined by the neurotransmitter release which is also probabilistic.

God may perform miracles by manipulating the probability allowed by physical laws.

Many people became God’s believers after surviving from a serious illness or a severe car accident. Other God’s believers may encounter some kind of “coincidence” that saved their lives or made their lives better. They believed those rare events were the miracles from God, but atheists thought these people were just lucky.

Are we just lucky to have millions of goldilocks conditions that made life possible on the Earth? If the Earth is a little of bit closer or farther from the Sun, its surface temperature would be too hot or too cold for the existence of life. Its atmospheric gases also have the just-right combination so that they can block most harmful radiation from the Sun while allowing visible light to pass through. The location of our solar system in the Milky Way Galaxy is also just right. If it were close to the galactic center, it would expose to significant amount of harmful radiation from other stars. If too far away, the Sun would not have enough “metals” (defined by astronomers as the elements heavier than helium) for the creation of planets. Theists believe these fine-tunings are the intelligent design by God, but atheists think we are just lucky: our universe contains billions of stars and planets, each having different characteristics; our Sun and Earth just happened to possess all of the right characteristics.

Now, consider the fine-tuning of physical constants. If the electromagnetic force were 4 percent weaker, there would be no hydrogen atom. If protons were 0.2 percent heavier, they could decay into neutrons and the atom would fall apart. The strong nuclear force must be tuned to within 1%, otherwise carbon cannot be formed. The weak nuclear force must also be tuned to a narrow range in order to produce heavy elements. To explain these fine-tunings, atheistic scientists assume that the whole universe (bulk universe) may contain almost infinite number of sub-universes (braneworlds), each having a different set of physical constants. Our braneworld just happened to have the right physical constants.

What a great coincidence!

Let us consider the following scenario:

Long before the existence of our braneworld, a spirit world appeared in the bulk universe. The intelligent life (God) in this spirit world created our braneworld.

This scenario raises a question: if God created us, who created God? how did the spirit world come to exist? A scientific answer to this question is given in the next article.